QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSES FOR PROTEIN GLYCOSYLATION

After transcription and translation, genes produce long chains of amino acids with specific sequences, which are precursors to proteins. After covalent modification, folding, curling, and forming a specific spatial conformation, they become mature and functional proteins. Covalent modification plays an important role in the protein maturation process. Many key functions of proteins, especially those related to regulation, are achieved after covalent modification. Post-translational modifications can occur at any site of a protein. There are currently hundreds of post-translational modifications reported in the literature. Common ones include glycosylation modification and acetylation modification. The Role of Glycosylation Modification Protein glycosylation is one…

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QUICKLY UNDERSTAND ANTHOCYANINS AND THEIR ANALYSIS METHODS

What is Anthocyanin? Anthocyanidin is a flavonoid compound, a type of water-soluble pigment that can be widely found in plants, and also the main coloring substance of plants. Free anthocyanins are rare under natural conditions, and often form anthocyanins through glycosidic bonds with one or more glucose, rhamnose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, etc. The glycoside groups and hydroxyl groups in anthocyanins can also form acylated anthocyanins with one or several molecules of coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and other aromatic acids and fatty acids through ester bonds. R1 and R2 are H, OH or OCH3, R3 is glycosyl or…

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METHODS TO DETECT HOST CELL PROTEINS IN BIOPHARMACEUTICAL

What is host cell protein? Host cell protein (HCP) is the largest protein contaminant in biopharmaceuticals, derived from recombinant DNA technology. Most biotherapeutics use recombinant DNA technology to express target protein drugs using preferred host cells. Since host cells also express a large amount of protein, recombinant protein drugs will be contaminated by HCPs. Even after complicated purification steps, low concentrations (1-100 ppm) of HCP may remain in the final biopharmaceutical product. The residual HCP content in biological products is usually a critical quality attribute (CQA) of the product. The remaining host cell protein as a foreign protein may trigger…

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INTRODUCTION ON EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF POLYPHENOLS

What are Polyphenols? Polyphenolic compounds, containing multiple phenolic groups, are chemical substances found in plants. In the whole plant kingdom, there are more than 6,500 kinds of polyphenols or phenolic compounds and their derivatives. Polyphenol compounds can be excellent antioxidant resources. They are secondary by-products of plant metabolism and are found in many common fruits and vegetables, which are the sources of the largest amount of antioxidants that people consume in their food every day. A large number of studies have confirmed the positive impact of plant polyphenols on many aspects, such as anti-oxidation, anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-virus, anti-microbial, slowing down…

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INTRODUCTION ON EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF POLYPHENOLS

¬†Metabolomics¬†is the study of all metabolites in a particular organism or biological system. It can provide critical information, qualitatively and quantitatively, for further understanding of related metabolic pathways and their changes. Microbes are essential in biological systems, and metabolomics technology has received extensive attention in microbial research. Microbial metabolomics has functioned effectively in different research fields, such as microbial identification and mutation breeding, functional gene research, metabolic engineering, and fermentation engineering. Application of Microbial Metabolomics in the Research of Lactic Acid Bacteria The traditional classification of lactic acid bacteria is mainly based on morphological observation and biochemical experiments for phenotypic…

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